The next effective governmental level below state government are municipalities. Most of these are towns. Vermont is the only state in the union not to have a balanced budget requirement, yet Vermont has had a balanced budget every year since The state uses enterprise funds for operations that are similar to private business enterprises. Vermont collects a state personal income tax in a progressive structure of five different income brackets, with marginal tax rates ranging from 3. There are 46 exemptions from the sales tax , including exemptions for food, medical items, manufacturing machinery, equipment and fuel, residential fuel and electricity, clothing, and shoes.
A use tax is imposed on the buyer at the same rate as the sales tax. The buyer pays the use tax when the seller fails to collect the sales tax or the items are purchased from a source where no tax is collected. The use tax applies to items taxable under the sales tax. Vermont does not collect inheritance taxes , but does impose a state estate tax ; a Vermont estate tax return must be filed if the estate must file a federal estate tax return the requirement for which depends on federal law.
Vermont does not collect a state gift tax. Property taxes are levied by municipalities for the support of education and municipal services. Vermont does not assess tax on personal property. In , Vermont counties were among the highest in the country for property taxes. To equitably support education, some towns are required by Act 60 to send some of their collected taxes to be redistributed to school districts lacking adequate support.
Vermont is one of four states that were once independent nations the others being Texas, California, and Hawaii. Notably, Vermont is the only state to have voted for a presidential candidate from the Anti-Masonic Party , and Vermont was one of only two states to vote against Franklin D. Roosevelt in all four of his presidential campaigns the other was Maine.
Vermont's history of independent political thought has led to movements for the establishment of the Second Vermont Republic and other plans advocating secession. Vermont is the only state in the United States that requires voters to be sworn in,  having established the voter's oath or affirmation in Republicans dominated local Vermont politics from the party's founding in until the mids. Before the s, rural interests dominated the legislature. As a result, cities, particularly the older sections of Burlington and Winooski, were neglected and fell into decay. People began to move out to newer suburbs.
Vermont was for many years a stronghold of the Republican Party. Ethno-political culture of the last century has seen a dramatic shift in voter turnout in the Green Mountain State. Since , Vermont has voted for the Democrat in every Presidential election. Before , Vermont voted for the Republican in every single Presidential election with the exception of A series of one man, one vote decisions made by the United States Supreme Court in the s required states to redraw their legislative districts to accurately reflect population.
As a result, urban areas in Vermont gained political power. The legislature was redistricted under one-person, one-vote in the s It passed the Land Use and Development Law Act in to discourage suburban sprawl and to limit major growth to already developed areas. The law, the first of its kind in the nation, created nine District Environmental Commissions appointed by the Governor, who judged land development and subdivision plans that would have a significant impact on the state's environment and many small communities.
Albans and Derby — were newly built from the ground up. Because of the successful attempts to dilute what is perceived as the original intent of Act ,  and other development pressures, Vermont has been designated one of America's most "endangered historic places" by the National Trust for Historic Preservation. In the state banned the spreading of manure from December 15 to April 1, to prevent runoff and protect the water. Therefore farms must have environmentally approved facilities to store manure during this time frame.
While the state voted largely Democratic, Republican Governor Douglas won all counties but Windham in the election. A controversy dating from has been over the adoption of civil unions , an institution which grants same-sex couples nearly all the rights and privileges of marriage at the state, but not federal, level. Vermont , the Vermont Supreme Court ruled that, under the Constitution of Vermont , the state must either allow same-sex marriage or provide a separate but equal status for them.
The state legislature chose the second option by creating the institution of civil union ; the bill was passed by the legislature and signed into law by Governor Howard Dean. In April the state legislature overrode governor Jim Douglas 's veto to allow same-sex marriage, becoming the first state in the nation to legalize same-sex marriage through legislation.
In the state's House of Representatives rejected a measure which would have legalized assisted suicide for the terminally ill, by a vote of 82— Minor parties and Independents flourish. Rules which eliminate smaller parties from the ballot in most states do not exist in Vermont. As a result, voters often have extensive choices for general elections. Among others, this more open policy enabled independents like Bernie Sanders to win election as mayor of Burlington, U. A political issue has been Act 60 , which balances taxation for education funding. This has resulted in the town of Killington trying to secede from Vermont and join New Hampshire due to what the locals say is an unfair tax burden.
The Vermont constitution and the courts supports the right of a person to walk fish and hunt on any unposted, unfenced land. That is, trespass must be proven by the owner; it is not automatically assumed. The state is an alcoholic beverage control state. In Vermont became the 17th state to decriminalize marijuana. The statute makes possession of less than an ounce of the drug punishable by a small fine rather than arrest and possible jail time. In Vermont became the first state to call for a constitutional convention to overturn the Supreme Court's decision in Citizens United v.
In Vermont became the first state to mandate labeling of genetically modified organisms in the retail food supply. Historically, Vermont was considered one of the most reliably Republican states in the country in terms of national elections. From to , Vermont voted Democratic only once, in Lyndon B. Johnson 's landslide victory of against Barry M. It was also one of only two states—the other being Maine—where Franklin D. Roosevelt was completely shut out in all four of his presidential bids. In the s and s many people moved in from out of state. As evidence of this, in Bernie Sanders , a self-described democratic socialist , was elected to Vermont's lone seat in the House as an independent.
Sanders became the state's junior Senator in However, for his entire career in the House and Senate, Sanders has caucused with the Democrats and is counted as a Democrat for the purposes of committee assignments and voting for party leadership. After narrowly supporting George H. Bush in , it gave Democrat Bill Clinton a point margin in —the first time the state had gone Democratic since Vermont has voted Democratic in every presidential election since. Since , Vermont has been one of the Democrats' most loyal states.
It gave John Kerry his fourth-largest margin of victory in the presidential campaign against George W. Essex County in the state's northeastern section was the only county to vote for Bush. Vermont is the only state that did not receive a visit from George W. Bush during his tenure as President of the United States. Only Obama's birth state of Hawaii and Washington, D. The state is represented by an at-large member of the House, Democrat Peter Welch , who succeeded Sanders in In Vermont was the sixth highest ranked state for Well-Being in a study by Gallup and Healthways.
In Vermont was ranked the highest in the country for health outcomes. In the state implemented the Vermont Child Health Improvement Program to improve preventive services and management of chronic conditions. In , the state ranked third in the nation in child health system performance. In Vermont was ranked number one in the nation as the healthiest place to live for the seventh time in eight years. Criteria included low teenage birth rate, strong health coverage, the lowest AIDS rate in the country, and 18 other factors. A problem area was a high prevalence of binge drinking.
The ranking for children was ninth best in the nation. This is better than most other states. In Vermont led the nation in the rate of young people who had consumed alcohol in the past month; one-third of people aged 11 through One-fifth of that group had binged during that time. In Vermont was ranked second in the nation for safety.
Crime statistics on violence were used for the criteria. Vermont has some of the least restrictive gun control laws in the country. A permit or license is not required for purchasing or carrying firearms. In Vermont was ranked among the best five states in the country for preventing "premature death" in people under 75 years of age. The rate of survival was twice that of the five lowest performing states. In Vermont was ranked the third safest state for highway fatalities. Parts of the state have been declared federal disaster areas on 28 occasions from to In the Environmental Protection Agency cited Chittenden and Bennington as counties with 70 parts per billion of smog which is undesirable.
In northern Vermont particularly, moose are not uncommon, including in urban areas. There are several deaths each year from automobiles striking moose. In about , Vermonters got their health care through the federal government, Medicare , Tri-Care and the Veteran's Administration. The state started air drops of rabies bait for raccoons in Known rabies cases in raccoons peaked in at The program is in cooperation with neighboring states and Canada.
Vermont was named the nation's smartest state in and This puts Vermont 11th-best in the nation. Most states have a higher bias. The first three scores were not considered statistically different from average. White eighth graders scored significantly above average in reading. Statistics for black students were not reliable because of their small representation in the testing.
Education Week ranked the state second  in high school graduation rates for In , the ratio of pupils to teachers was the lowest in the country. Experimentation at the University of Vermont by George Perkins Marsh , and later the influence of Vermont-born philosopher and educator John Dewey brought about the concepts of electives and learning by doing. This compares with an average of 34, nationally for in-state students.
In a number of Vermont-based composers including Gwyneth Walker formed the Vermont Composers Consortium,   which was recognized by the governor proclaiming as The Year of the Composer. Burlington, Vermont's largest city, hosts the annual Vermont International Film Festival in October, that presents 10 days of independent film from the US and around the world. Brattleboro also hosts the summertime Strolling of the Heifers parade which celebrates Vermont's dairy culture. In the Northeast Kingdom, the Bread and Puppet Theatre holds weekly shows in Glover in a natural outdoor amphitheater.
Vermont's most recent best known musical talent was the group Phish , whose members met while attending school in Vermont and spent much of their early years playing at venues across the state. The Vermont-based House of LeMay  performs several shows a year, hosts the annual "Winter is a Drag Ball,"  and performs for fundraisers. Examples of folk art found in Vermont include the Vermontasaurus in Post Mills, a community in Thetford.
The state stood first in New England. There are a number of museums in the state. Winter sports are popular in New England, and Vermont's winter sports attractions are a big part of Vermont tourism. Others learned snowboarding in the state, such as Louie Vito and Ellery Hollingsworth. The largest professional franchise is the Vermont Lake Monsters , a single-A minor league baseball affiliate of the Oakland Athletics , based in Burlington. They were named the Vermont Expos before The Vermont Frost Heaves , the and American Basketball Association national champions, were a franchise of the Premier Basketball League , and were based in Barre and Burlington from the fall of through the winter of The Vermont Bucks , an indoor football team, were based in Burlington and began play in as the founding team in the Can-Am Indoor Football League.
Vermont is home to the University of Vermont Men's and Women's hockey teams.
Vermont's only professional hockey team was the Vermont Wild who played in the Federal Hockey League during the season, but the team folded before the season ended. Annually since , high school statewide all stars compete against New Hampshire in ten sports during "Twin State" playoffs. Vermont also has a few auto racing venues. It is well known for its tight racing and has become well known in short track stock car racing. Kevin Lepage from Shelburne, Vermont is one of a few professional drivers from Vermont. Vermont is the birthplace of former U. Arthur and Calvin Coolidge. The following were either born in Vermont or resided there for a substantial period during their lives.
State House in Montpelier —Vermont's capital city. Mount Mansfield —Vermont's highest mountain. Church Street in Burlington —Vermont's largest city.
Burke Mountain from Lyndonville —in the state's "Northeast Kingdom". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Vermont disambiguation. Climate of New England. Geology of New England. List of forts in Vermont. Vermont in the American Civil War. This section needs expansion.
You can help by adding to it. Religion in Vermont  Religion Percent None. Vermont locations by per capita income. List of state highways in Vermont. List of newspapers in Vermont. List of radio stations in Vermont and List of television stations in Vermont. List of colleges and universities in Vermont. List of Vermont state symbols. List of people from Vermont. Vermont portal New England portal. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 6, Retrieved December 9, Retrieved July 20, United States Geological Survey.
Archived from the original on July 22, Retrieved October 24, Retrieved December 31, Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed. Subscription or UK public library membership required. Archived from the original on June 7, Retrieved July 13, Retrieved April 9, Chapter I, Section I: Archived from the original on July 25, Retrieved February 12, Therefore, no male person, born in this country, or brought from over sea, ought to be holden by law, to serve any person, as a servant, slave, or apprentice, after he arrives to the age of twenty-one years; nor female, in like manner, after she arrives to the age of eighteen years, unless they are bound by their own consent, after they arrive to such age, or bound by law for the payment of debts, damages, fines, costs, or the like.
The Reluctant Republic, Vermont — The Land of Green Mountains". Vermont Bureau of Publicity: Hiking the Green Mountains: A History of Vermont: New Hampshire U. Retrieved April 12, Archived from the original on November 19, Archived from the original on June 16, Retrieved July 15, Retrieved October 7, Retrieved July 31, The Leading Wedding Site on the Net". Archived from the original on February 24, Retrieved February 23, Retrieved January 25, Retrieved March 21, Archived from the original on April 29, Retrieved March 14, Retrieved June 3, The Physiographic Regions of Vermont.
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Retrieved August 21, Archived May 10, , at the Wayback Machine. An Appeal to the Legislators of Massachusetts. Early Steps Against Slavery". Vermont Sites to Open".
Healthy Vermonters Plans & Reports | Vermont Department of Health
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Archived from the original CSV on December 23, Retrieved December 26, Click here for a complete list of module trainings. The module comes with videos including home movies of babies who later develop ASD , case studies and other resources. Foundations of Autism Spectrum Disorders: All of the lecture content and supporting materials available online for free.
Created in collaboration with the Organization for Autism Research OAR , this comprehensive professional development tool is designed to provide middle and high school teachers with the knowledge and evidence-based strategies needed to support their students with autism in the general education classroom. Medical Home Vermont Resources Tools: Perhaps the most popular option is to work with law enforcement and provide profiles and analysis of suspects. Some would rather work directly with the criminals in the prison system, and others might want to work in the courts.
Working in certain types of hospitals is also a possibility. Another option that one might consider is to work as a researcher. If you are a forensic psychologist working in Vermont, you are going to be making a good living. This is a great wage for the state. What is it that makes forensics such a popular topic? Science, when applied to law enforcement, is fascinating. With science — from the behavioral analysis of a forensic psychologist to the blood spatter analysis of a crime scene investigator — it is possible to find the underlying cause of mysteries and solve crimes.
The only thing people love more than a mystery is solving it. These different scientific disciplines help with that. You Can Become a Forensic Psychologist in Vermont Education is the most important thing for someone who wants to become a forensic psychologist in Vermont.