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Philosophical Essays on Pornography and Objectification , proposed three more properties to be added to Nussbaum's list: According to objectification theory, objectification can have important repercussions on women, particularly young women, as it can negatively impact their psychological health and lead to the development of mental disorders, such as unipolar depression , sexual dysfunction , and eating disorders. While advertising used to portray women and men in obviously stereotypical roles e.

However, advertising today nonetheless still stereotypes men and women, albeit in more subtle ways, including by sexually objectifying them. Today, some countries for example Norway and Denmark have laws against sexual objectification in advertising. Sol Olving, head of Norway's Kreativt Forum an association of the country's top advertising agencies explained, "You could have a naked person advertising shower gel or a cream, but not a woman in a bikini draped across a car". Other countries continue to ban nudity on traditional obscenity grounds , but also make explicit reference to sexual objectification, such as Israel 's ban of billboards that "depicts sexual humiliation or abasement, or presents a human being as an object available for sexual use".

Anti-pornography feminist Catharine MacKinnon argues that pornography contributes to sexism by objectifying women and portraying them in submissive roles. Robin Morgan and Catharine MacKinnon suggest that certain types of pornography also contribute to violence against women by eroticizing scenes in which women are dominated, coerced, humiliated or sexually assaulted.

Some people opposed to pornography, including MacKinnon, charge that the production of pornography entails physical, psychological, and economic coercion of the women who perform and model in it. Pornography affects people's belief in rape myths. So for example if a woman says "I didn't consent" and people have been viewing pornography, they believe rape myths and believe the woman did consent no matter what she said. That when she said no, she meant yes. When she said she didn't want to, that meant more beer. When she said she would prefer to go home, that means she's a lesbian who needs to be given a good corrective experience.

Pornography promotes these rape myths and desensitizes people to violence against women so that you need more violence to become sexually aroused if you're a pornography consumer. This is very well documented. Defenders of pornography and anti-censorship activists including sex-positive feminists argue that pornography does not seriously impact a mentally healthy individual, since the viewer can distinguish between fantasy and reality.

Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual relations in exchange for payment. There is a prevailing notion that because they sell sex professionally, prostitutes automatically consent to all sexual contact. This is often dismissed, ignored and not taken seriously by authorities. In many countries, prostitution is dominated by brothels or pimps, who often claim ownership over sex workers. This sense of ownership furthers the concept that sex workers are void of agency. Various authors have argued that female prostitution is based on male sexism that condones the idea that unwanted sex with a woman is acceptable, that men's desires must be satisfied, and that women are coerced into and exist to serve men sexually.

Carole Pateman writes that: Some scholars believe that media portrayals of demographic groups can both maintain and disrupt attitudes and behaviors toward those groups. For example, a study of African American women found they feel that media portrayals of African American women often reinforce stereotypes of this group as overly sexual and idealize images of lighter-skinned, thinner African American women images African American women describe as objectifying.

In an attempt to study the effect of media consumption on males, Samantha and Bridges found an effect on body shame, though not through self-objectification as it was found in comparable studies of women. The authors conclude that the current measures of objectification were designed for women and do not measure men accurately. Frederick Attenborough argues that sexist jokes can be a form of sexual objectification, which reduce the butt of the joke to an object.

They not only objectify women, but can also condone violence or prejudice against women. Gender discrimination is discrimination on the basis of actual or perceived gender identity. According to a recent report by the Congressional Research Service, "although the majority of federal courts to consider the issue have concluded that discrimination on the basis of gender identity is not sex discrimination, there have been several courts that have reached the opposite conclusion". Oppositional sexism is a term coined by transfeminist author Julia Serano , who defined oppositional sexism as "the belief that male and female are rigid, mutually exclusive categories".

Oppositional sexism normalizes masculine expression in males and feminine expression in females while simultaneously demonizing femininity in males and masculinity in females. This concept plays a crucial role in supporting cissexism, the social norm that views cisgender people as both natural and privileged as opposed to transgender people. The idea of having two, totally opposite genders is tied to sexuality through what gender theorist Judith Butler calls a "compulsory practice of heterosexuality".

The concept of opposite genders sets a "dangerous precedent", according to Serano, where "if men are big then women must be small; and if men are strong then women must be weak". Serano states that oppositional sexism works in tandem with "traditional sexism". This ensures that "those who are masculine have power over those who are feminine, and that only those that are born male will be seen as authentically masculine".

Transgender discrimination is discrimination towards peoples whose gender identity differs from the social expectations of the biological sex they were born with. Miller and Eric Anthony Grollman found in their study that "gender nonconformity may heighten trans people's exposure to discrimination and health-harming behaviors. Gender nonconforming trans adults reported more events of major and everyday transphobic discrimination than their gender conforming counterparts. Transgender Survey, was published in December Although the exact rates are widely disputed, there is a large body of cross-cultural evidence that women are subjected to domestic violence mostly committed by men.

Domestic violence is tolerated and even legally accepted in many parts of the world. For instance, in , the United Arab Emirates UAE 's Supreme Court ruled that a man has the right to physically discipline his wife and children if he does not leave visible marks.

Honor killings are another form of domestic violence practiced in several parts of the world, and their victims are predominantly women. According to a report of the Special Rapporteur submitted to the 58th session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights concerning cultural practices in the family that reflect violence against women:. The Special Rapporteur indicated that there had been contradictory decisions with regard to the honour defense in Brazil , and that legislative provisions allowing for partial or complete defense in that context could be found in the penal codes of Argentina, Ecuador, Egypt, Guatemala, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Peru, Syria, Venezuela, and the Palestinian National Authority.

Practices such as honor killings and stoning continue to be supported by mainstream politicians and other officials in some countries. Only those who indulge in immoral acts should be afraid. Dowry deaths are the result of the killing women who are unable to pay the high dowry price for their marriage. According to Amnesty International, "the ongoing reality of dowry-related violence is an example of what can happen when women are treated as property". Female infanticide is the killing of newborn female children, while female selective abortion is the terminating of a pregnancy based upon the female sex of the fetus.

Gendercide is the systematic killing of members of a specific gender and it is an extreme form of gender-based violence. Sex-selective abortion involves terminating a pregnancy based upon the predicted sex of the baby. The trend has grown steadily over the previous decade, and may result in a future shortage of women. Forced sterilization and forced abortion are also forms of gender-based violence.

In China, the one child policy interacting with the low status of women has been deemed responsible for many abuses, such female infanticide, sex-selective abortion, abandonment of baby girls, forced abortion , and forced sterilization. In India the custom of dowry is strongly related to female infanticide, sex-selective abortion, abandonment and mistreatment of girls. Female genital mutilation is defined by the World Health Organization WHO as "all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons".

WHO further state that, "the procedure has no health benefits for girls and women" and "[p]rocedures can cause severe bleeding and problems urinating, and later cysts, infections, infertility as well as complications in childbirth increased risk of newborn death," [] and "is recognized internationally as a violation of the human rights of girls and women" and "constitutes an extreme form of discrimination against women". Research by Lisak and Roth into factors motivating perpetrators of sexual assault, including rape, against women revealed a pattern of hatred towards women and pleasure in inflicting psychological and physical trauma, rather than sexual interest.

Mary Odem, Jody Clay-Warner, and Susan Brownmiller argue that sexist attitudes are propagated by a series of myths about rape and rapists. Sexism can promote the stigmatization of women and girls who have been raped and inhibit recovery. The criminalization of marital rape is very recent, having occurred during the past few decades; and in many countries it is still legal. Several countries in Eastern Europe and Scandinavia made spousal rape illegal before ; other European countries and some of the English-speaking countries outside Europe outlawed it later, mostly in the s and s; [] some countries outlawed it in the s.

The custom of marrying off young children, particularly girls, is found in many parts of the world. This practice—legal in many countries—is a form of sexual violence, since the children involved are unable to give or withhold their consent". In countries where fornication or adultery are illegal, victims of rape can be charged criminally. Sexism is manifested by the crime of rape targeting women civilians and soldiers, committed by soldiers, combatants or civilians during armed conflict, war or military occupation.

This arises from the long tradition of women being seen as sexual booty and from the misogynistic culture of military training. Sexual violence and rape are also committed against men during war and are often under-reported. Sexism plays a significant part in the difficulty that the survivors face coping with their victimization, especially in patriarchal cultures, and in the lack of support provided to men who have been raped. The United Nations Population Fund writes that "Family planning is central to gender equality and women's empowerment".

A child marriage is a marriage where one or both spouses are under 18, a practice that disproportionately affects women. The practice of marrying young girls is rooted in patriarchal ideologies of control of female behavior, and is also sustained by traditional practices such as dowry and bride price. Consequences of child marriage include restricted education and employment prospects, increased risk of domestic violence , child sexual abuse , pregnancy and birth complications, and social isolation. In several OIC countries the legal testimony of a woman is worth legally half of that of a man see Status of women's testimony in Islam.

Such laws have been criticized by Human Rights Watch and Equality Now as being discriminatory towards women. The criminal justice system in many common law countries has also been accused of discriminating against women. Provocation is, in many common law countries, a partial defense to murder , which converts what would have been murder into manslaughter. It is meant to be applied when a person kills in the "heat of passion" upon being "provoked" by the behavior of the victim.

This defense has been criticized as being gendered, favoring men, due to it being used disproportionately in cases of adultery , and other domestic disputes when women are killed by their partners. As a result of the defense exhibiting a strong gender bias, and being a form of legitimization of male violence against women and minimization of the harm caused by violence against women, it has been abolished or restricted in several jurisdictions. The traditional leniently towards crimes of passion in Latin American countries has been deemed to have its origin in the view that women are property.

In the United States, some studies have shown that for identical crimes, men are given harsher sentences than women. Women are more likely to avoid charges entirely, and to avoid imprisonment if convicted. For example, the gender gap is less pronounced in fraud cases than in drug trafficking and firearms. This disparity occurs in US federal courts, despite guidelines designed to avoid differential sentencing. According to Shatz and Shatz, "[t]he present study confirms what earlier studies have shown: There have been several reasons postulated for the gender criminal justice disparity in the United States.

One of the most common is expectation that women are predominantly care-givers. Gender discrimination also helps explain the differences between trial outcomes in which some female defendants are sentenced to death and other female defendants are sentenced to lesser punishments. Phillip Barron argues that female defendants are more likely to be sentenced to death for crimes that violate gender norms, such as killing children or killing strangers. Transgender people face widespread discrimination while incarcerated.

They are generally housed according to their legal birth sex, rather than their gender identity. Studies have shown that transgender people are at an increased risk for harassment and sexual assault in this environment. They may also be denied access to medical procedures related to their reassignment. Some countries use stoning as a form of capital punishment. According to Amnesty International , the majority of those stoned are women and women are disproportionately affected by stoning because of sexism in the legal system. One study found that "on average, women receive lighter sentences in comparison with men We also find evidence of considerable heterogeneity across judges in their treatment of female and male offenders.

There is little evidence, however, that tastes for gender discrimination are driving the mean gender disparity or the variance in treatment between judges.

Research shows that we're a lot more alike than most of us think.

A study by Knepper found that "female plaintiffs filing workplace sex discrimination claims are substantially more likely to settle and win compensation whenever a female judge is assigned to the case. Additionally, female judges are 15 percentage points less likely than male judges to grant motions filed by defendants, which suggests that final negotiations are shaped by the emergence of the bias. Women have traditionally had limited access to higher education. Educational specialties in higher education produce and perpetuate inequality between men and women.

World literacy is lower for females than for males. Data from The World Factbook shows that In parts of Afghanistan, girls who go to school face serious violence from some local community members and religious groups. Educational opportunities and outcomes for women have greatly improved in the West. Since , the proportion of women enrolled in college in the United States has exceeded the enrollment rate for men, and the gap has widened over time. Writer Gerry Garibaldi has argued that the educational system has become "feminized", allowing girls more of a chance at success with a more "girl-friendly" environment in the classroom; [] this is seen to hinder boys by punishing "masculine" behavior and diagnosing boys with behavioral disorders.

The researchers attribute this to stereotypical ideas about boys and recommend teachers to be aware of this gender bias. Feminists argue that clothing and footwear fashion has been oppressive to women, restricting their movements, increasing their vulnerability, and endangering their health.

The assignment of gender-specific baby clothes can instill in children a belief in negative gender stereotypes. The fashion is a recent one; at the beginning of the 20th century the trend was the opposite: DressMaker magazine also explained that "[t]he preferred colour to dress young boys in is pink. Blue is reserved for girls as it is considered paler, and the more dainty of the two colours, and pink is thought to be stronger akin to red ".

From the midth century [] until the late 19th or early 20th century, young boys in the Western world were unbreeched and wore gowns or dresses until an age that varied between two and eight. Laws that dictate how women must dress are seen by many international human rights organizations, such as Amnesty International , as a form of gender discrimination. Interpretations of religion, culture, or tradition cannot justify imposing rules about dress on those who choose to dress differently. States should take measures to protect individuals from being coerced to dress in specific ways by family members, community or religious groups or leaders.

The production process also faces criticism for sexist practices. In the garment industry, approximately 80 percent of workers are female. Women who work in these factories are sexually harassed by managers and male workers, paid low wages, and discriminated against when pregnant. Conscription , or compulsory military service, has been criticized as sexist. In his book The Second Sexism: Discrimination Against Men and Boys , philosopher David Benatar states that "[t]he prevailing assumption is that where conscription is necessary, it is only men who should be conscripted and, similarly, that only males should be forced into combat".

This, he believes, "is a sexist assumption". Currently, only nine countries conscript women into their armed forces: In , Norway became the first NATO country to introduce obligatory military service for women as an act of gender equality [] [] and in , the Dutch government started preparing a gender-neutral draft law.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. It is not to be confused with anti-sexualism. For discrimination based on sexuality, see Sexual orientation discrimination. Coverture , Marital power , Restitution of conjugal rights , Kirchberg v. Feenstra , and Marriage bar.


  1. Sex differences in cardiovascular function during submaximal exercise in humans.
  2. Shanna.
  3. Paper Moon (Moonstruck);
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Women's suffrage Muslim countries US. First Second Third Fourth. Lists Articles Feminists by nationality Literature American feminist literature Feminist comic books. Occupational sexism and Second-generation gender bias. The practice of using first names for individuals from a profession that is predominantly female occurs in health care. Physicians are typically referred to using their last name, but nurses are referred to, even by physicians they do not know, by their first name.

According to Suzanne Gordon, a typical conversation between a physician and a nurse is: Would you hand me the patient's chart? Feminist views on pornography. Honor killing , Acid throwing , and Dowry death. Sexual assault and Post-assault treatment of sexual assault victims. Child marriage and Forced marriage. Dowry and Bride price. Sex differences in education and Sexism in academia. Foot binding and Burqa. List of historical sources for pink and blue as gender signifiers.

New Oxford American Dictionary 3 ed. Defines sexism as "prejudice, stereotyping, or discrimination, typically against women, on the basis of sex". Defines sexism as "prejudice or discrimination based on sex or gender, especially against women and girls". Notes that "sexism in a society is most commonly applied against women and girls.

It functions to maintain patriarchy, or male domination, through ideological and material practices of individuals, collectives, and institutions that oppress women and girls on the basis of sex or gender. A Companion to Applied Ethics. Notes that " 'Sexism' refers to a historically and globally pervasive form of oppression against women.

Encyclopedia of Gender and Society. Notes that "sexism usually refers to prejudice or discrimination based on sex or gender, especially against women and girls". Also states that "sexism is an ideology or practices that maintain patriarchy or male domination". The Oxford Companion to Philosophy 2 ed. Defines sexism as "thought or practice which may permeate language and which assumes women's inferiority to men".

Collins Dictionary of Sociology. Defines sexism as "any devaluation or denigration of women or men, but particularly women, which is embodied in institutions and social relationships. Notes that "either sex may be the object of sexist attitudes Built upon the belief that men and women are constitutionally different, sexism takes these differences as indications that men are inherently superior to women, which then is used to justify the nearly universal dominance of men in social and familial relationships, as well as politics, religion, language, law, and economics.

In Kurlan, George Thomas. The Encyclopedia of Political Science. Notes that "both men and women can experience sexism, but sexism against women is more pervasive". The Blackwell Dictionary of Sociology. Suggests that "the key test of whether something is sexist I specify 'male privilege' because in every known society where gender inequality exists, males are privileged over females. Feminist Theories and Politics. The lobes are separated by dense connective tissues that support the glands and attach them to the tissues on the underlying pectoral muscles.

The female internal reproductive organs are the vagina , uterus , Fallopian tubes , and ovaries. The vagina is a sheath-like canal that extends from the vulva to the cervix. It receives the penis during intercourse and serves as a depository for sperm. The vagina is located between the bladder and the rectum. The vagina is normally collapsed, but during sexual arousal it opens, lengthens, and produces lubrication to allow the insertion of the penis.

The vagina has three layered walls; it is a self-cleaning organ with natural bacteria that suppress the production of yeast. This area may vary in size and location between women; in some it may be absent. Various researchers dispute its structure or existence, or regard it as an extension of the clitoris. The uterus or womb is a hollow, muscular organ where a fertilized egg ovum will implant itself and grow into a fetus.

Sex differences in cardiovascular function during submaximal exercise in humans

During ovulation, this thickens for implantation. If implantation does not occur, it is sloughed off during menstruation. The cervix is the narrow end of the uterus. The broad part of the uterus is the fundus. During ovulation , the ovum travels down the Fallopian tubes to the uterus. Finger-like projections at the ends of the tubes brush the ovaries and receive the ovum once it is released. The ovum then travels for three to four days to the uterus.

The lining of the tube and its secretions sustain the egg and the sperm, encouraging fertilization and nourishing the ovum until it reaches the uterus. If the ovum divides after fertilization, identical twins are produced. If separate eggs are fertilized by different sperm, the mother gives birth to non-identical or fraternal twins. The ovaries are the female gonads; they develop from the same embryonic tissue as the testicles. The ovaries are suspended by ligaments and are the source where ova are stored and developed before ovulation. The ovaries also produce female hormones progesterone and estrogen.

Within the ovaries, each ovum is surrounded by other cells and contained within a capsule called a primary follicle. At puberty, one or more of these follicles are stimulated to mature on a monthly basis. Once matured, these are called Graafian follicles. Ovulation is based on a monthly cycle; the 14th day is the most fertile.

On days one to four, menstruation and production of estrogen and progesterone decreases, and the endometrium starts thinning. The endometrium is sloughed off for the next three to six days. Once menstruation ends, the cycle begins again with an FSH surge from the pituitary gland. Days five to thirteen are known as the pre-ovulatory stage. During this stage, the pituitary gland secretes follicle-stimulating hormone FSH. A negative feedback loop is enacted when estrogen is secreted to inhibit the release of FSH.

Estrogen thickens the endometrium of the uterus. A surge of Luteinizing Hormone LH triggers ovulation. On day 14, the LH surge causes a Graafian follicle to surface the ovary. The follicle ruptures and the ripe ovum is expelled into the abdominal cavity. The fallopian tubes pick up the ovum with the fimbria. The cervical mucus changes to aid the movement of sperm. On days 15 to 28—the post-ovulatory stage, the Graafian follicle—now called the corpus luteum —secretes estrogen.

Production of progesterone increases, inhibiting LH release. The endometrium thickens to prepare for implantation, and the ovum travels down the Fallopian tubes to the uterus. If the ovum is not fertilized and does not implant, menstruation begins. The sexual response cycle is a model that describes the physiological responses that occur during sexual activity. This model was created by William Masters and Virginia Johnson. According to Masters and Johnson, the human sexual response cycle consists of four phases; excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution, also called the EPOR model.

During the excitement phase of the EPOR model, one attains the intrinsic motivation to have sex. The plateau phase is the precursor to orgasm, which may be mostly biological for men and mostly psychological for women. Orgasm is the release of tension, and the resolution period is the unaroused state before the cycle begins again.

The male sexual response cycle starts in the excitement phase; two centers in the spine are responsible for erections. Vasoconstriction in the penis begins, the heart rate increases, the scrotum thickens, the spermatic cord shortens, and the testicles become engorged with blood. In the plateau phase, the penis increases in diameter, the testicles become more engorged, and the Cowper's glands secrete pre-seminal fluid.

The orgasm phase, during which rhythmic contractions occur every 0. Ejaculation is called the expulsion phase; it cannot be reached without an orgasm. In the resolution phase, the male is now in an unaroused state consisting of a refactory rest period before the cycle can begin. This rest period may increase with age. The female sexual response begins with the excitement phase, which can last from several minutes to several hours.

Characteristics of this phase include increased heart and respiratory rate, and an elevation of blood pressure. Flushed skin or blotches of redness may occur on the chest and back; breasts increase slightly in size and nipples may become hardened and erect. The onset of vasocongestion results in swelling of the clitoris, labia minora, and vagina.

The muscle that surrounds the vaginal opening tightens and the uterus elevates and grows in size. The vaginal walls begin to produce a lubricating liquid. The second phase, called the plateau phase, is characterized primarily by the intensification of the changes begun during the excitement phase. The plateau phase extends to the brink of orgasm, which initiates the resolution stage; the reversal of the changes begun during the excitement phase. During the orgasm stage the heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and breathing rates peak. The pelvic muscle near the vagina, the anal sphincter, and the uterus contract.

Muscle contractions in the vaginal area create a high level of pleasure, though all orgasms are centered in the clitoris. From rodent to human, the corticalization of the brain induces several changes in the control of sexual behavior, including lordosis behavior. These changes induce a "difference between the stereotyped sexual behaviors in non-human mammals and the astounding variety of human sexual behaviors".

Sexual reflexes, such as the motor reflex of lordosis, become secondary. In particular, lordosis behavior, which is a motor reflex complex and essential to carry out copulation in non-primate mammals rodents , canines , bovids Sexual stimuli on women do not trigger any more neither immobilization nor the reflex position of lordosis.

Humans can have sex anytime during the year and hormonal cycles. Especially in humans, the extensive development of the neocortex allows the emergence of culture , which has a major influence on behavior. In human beings, sexuality is multifactorial, with several factors that interact genes, hormones, conditioning, sexual preferences, emotions, cognitive processes, cultural context.

The relative importance of each of these factors is dependent both on individual physiological characteristics, personal experience and aspects of the sociocultural environment. Sexual disorders, according to the DSM-IV-TR, are disturbances in sexual desire and psycho-physiological changes that characterize the sexual response cycle and cause marked distress, and interpersonal difficulty.

The sexual dysfunctions is a result of physical or psychological disorders. The physical causes include, hormonal imbalance, diabetes, heart disease and more. The psychological causes includes but are not limited to, stress, anxiety, and depression. There are four major categories of sexual problems for women: The arousal disorder is a female sexual dysfunction.

Arousal disorder means lack of vaginal lubrication. In addition, blood flow problems may affect arousal disorder. Lack of orgasm, also known as, anorgasmia is another sexual dysfunction in women. The anorgasmia occurs in women with psychological disorders such as guilt and anxiety that was caused by sexual assault. The last sexual disorder is the painful intercourse. The sexual disorder can be result of pelvic mass, scar tissue, sexually transmitted disease and more.

The lack of sexual desire in men is because of loss of libido, low testosterone. There are also psychological factors such as anxiety, and depression. The erectile dysfunction is a disability to have and maintain an erection during intercourse. Sexuality in humans generates profound emotional and psychological responses. Some theorists identify sexuality as the central source of human personality. He also proposed the concepts of psychosexual development and the Oedipus complex , among other theories. Gender identity is a person's sense of self-identification as female, male, both, neither, or somewhere in between.

The social construction of gender has been discussed by many scholars, including Judith Butler. More recent research has focused upon the influence of feminist theory and courtship. Sexual behavior and intimate relationships are strongly influenced by a person's sexual orientation. Before the High Middle Ages , homosexual acts appear to have been ignored or tolerated by the Christian church.

By the end of the 19th century, it was viewed as a pathology. He said male homosexuality resulted when a young boy had an authoritarian, rejecting mother and turned to his father for love and affection, and later to men in general. He said female homosexuality developed when a girl loved her mother and identified with her father, and became fixated at that stage. Freud and Ellis said homosexuality resulted from reversed gender roles.

In the early 21st century, this view is reinforced by the media's portrayal of male homosexuals as effeminate and female homosexuals as masculine. Society believes that if a man is masculine he is heterosexual, and if a man is feminine he is homosexual. There is no strong evidence that a homosexual or bisexual orientation must be associated with atypical gender roles. By the early 21st century, homosexuality was no longer considered to be a pathology. Theories have linked many factors, including genetic, anatomical, birth order, and hormones in the prenatal environment, to homosexuality.

Other than the need to procreate, there are many other reasons people have sex. In the past [ when? Sigmund Freud was one of the first researchers to take child sexuality seriously. His ideas, such as psychosexual development and the Oedipus conflict, have been much debated but acknowledging the existence of child sexuality was an important development. He explains this in his theory of infantile sexuality , and says sexual energy libido is the most important motivating force in adult life. Freud wrote about the importance of interpersonal relationships to one's sexual and emotional development.

From birth, the mother's connection to the infant affects the infant's later capacity for pleasure and attachment. During adolescence, a young person tries to integrate these two emotional currents. Alfred Kinsey also examined child sexuality in his Kinsey Reports. Children are naturally curious about their bodies and sexual functions. For example, they wonder where babies come from, they notice the differences between males and females, and many engage in genital play , which is often mistaken for masturbation.

Child sex play, also known as playing doctor , includes exhibiting or inspecting the genitals. Many children take part in some sex play, typically with siblings or friends. Curiosity levels remain high during these years, but the main surge in sexual interest occurs in adolescence. Adult sexuality originates in childhood. However, like many other human capacities, sexuality is not fixed, but matures and develops. A common stereotype associated with old people is that they tend to lose interest and the ability to engage in sexual acts once they reach late adulthood.

This misconception is reinforced by Western popular culture, which often ridicules older adults who try to engage in sexual activities. Age does not necessarily change the need or desire to be sexually expressive or active. A couple in a long-term relationship may find that the frequency of their sexual activity decreases over time and the type of sexual expression may change, but many couples experience increased intimacy and love. Human sexuality can be understood as part of the social life of humans, which is governed by implied rules of behavior and the status quo.

This narrows the view to groups within a society. Before the early 21st century, people fought for their civil rights. The civil rights movements helped to bring about massive changes in social norms; examples include the sexual revolution and the rise of feminism. The link between constructed sexual meanings and racial ideologies has been studied. Sexual meanings are constructed to maintain racial-ethnic-national boundaries by denigration of "others" and regulation of sexual behavior within the group. According to Joane Nagel, "both adherence to and deviation from such approved behaviors, define and reinforce racial, ethnic, and nationalist regimes".

In the United States people of color face the effects of colonialism in different ways with stereotypes such as the Mammy, and Jezabel for Black women; lotus blossom, and dragon lady for Asian women; and the "spicy" Latina. The age and manner in which children are informed of issues of sexuality is a matter of sex education. The school systems in almost all developed countries have some form of sex education, but the nature of the issues covered varies widely. In some countries, such as Australia and much of Europe, age-appropriate sex education often begins in pre-school, whereas other countries leave sex education to the pre-teenage and teenage years.

Geographic location also plays a role in society's opinion of the appropriate age for children to learn about sexuality. In some religions, sexual behavior is regarded as primarily spiritual. In others it is treated as primarily physical. Some hold that sexual behavior is only spiritual within certain kinds of relationships, when used for specific purposes, or when incorporated into religious ritual. In some religions there are no distinctions between the physical and the spiritual, whereas some religions view human sexuality as a way of completing the gap that exists between the spiritual and the physical.

Many religious conservatives, especially those of Abrahamic religions and Christianity in particular, tend to view sexuality in terms of behavior i. They may also see homosexuality as a form of mental illness, something that ought to be criminalised, an immoral abomination, caused by ineffective parenting, and view same-sex marriage as a threat to society. On the other hand, most religious liberals define sexuality-related labels in terms of sexual attraction and self-identification.

They also tend to be more in favor of same-sex marriage. He also says that he has found that generalizing about what is masculine and what is feminine is dangerous,often perpetuating gender myths that are discriminatory and damaging. He says while there is some research supporting biological roots to personality differences,the majority of studies suggest that much of what is considered masculine or feminine is culture determined.

He also says that viewing masculine and feminine as complementary opposites,while useful at times,is problematic. He then says as his gay,lesbian, and transsexual clients have taught him,gender is more accurately viewed as encompassing a wide-ranging continuum.

6 Myths About Men, Women, and Relationships | Psychology Today

He then says that likewise,the more people he sees in his practice,the more he is impressed at the great diversity in human nature. He says he has seen men of all types and varieties,and women of all kinds. He then says,he is hard-pressed to come up with very many generalizations based on gender. He says he knows that there are some statistical patterns,but how useful are they when he works with individuals and in a rapidly changing society? He says if each person is unique,no statistical norm or average will be able to define who my client is. He then says,from a psychological perspective,men and women are not, in fact,opposite.

He says his clinical experience is that they are much more psychologically alike than different,and the differences that exist are not necessarily opposing. They also show that surveys show that boys are overwhelmingly preferred over girls, sadly nothing has changed and sexist woman-hating,girl-hating Tee shirts that say I'm Too Pretty For Homework So I Let My Brother Do It For Me and other sexist anti-female ads,pornography,etc do too like these both reflect and contribute to this injustice.

They also explain that when people guess if a pregnant woman is having a girl or a boy,and they list a whole bunch of false unproven sexist, gender myth,gender stereotyped,old wives tales,that assign all negative characteristics to a woman if they think she's having a girl,and the imagined girls or given all of the negative characteristics. For example they say that author Elana Belotti explained these examples, The man and woman each take hold of one end of a wishbone and pull it apart. If the longest part comes away in the man's hand,the baby will be a boy.

If you suddenly ask a pregnant woman what she has in her hand and she looks at her right hand first ,she will have a boy;if she looks at her left hand it will be a girl. If the mother's belly is bigger on the right-hand side a boy will be born,and also if her right breast is bigger than her left,or if her right foot is more restless. If a woman is placid during pregnancy she will have a boy,but if she is bad-tempered or cries a lot,she will have a girl.

If her complexion is rosy she's going to have a son;if she is pale a daughter. If her looks improve,she's expecting a boy;if they worsen,a girl. If the fetal heartbeat is fast,it is a boy;if it is slow it is a girl. If the fetus has started to move by the fortieth day it will be a boy and the birth will be easy,but if it doesn't move until the ninetieth day it will be a girl. Brooks-Gunn and Wendy Schempp Matthews then say, now rate each of the characteristics above as positive or negative. A woman expecting a girl is pale,her looks deteriorate,she is cross and ill-tempered,and she gets the short end of the wishbone,all negative characteristics.

They then say,furthermore ,a girl is symbolized by the left-the left hand,the left side of the belly,the left foot,the left breast. They say,left connotes evil,a bad omen,or sinister,again the girls have all of the negative characteristics. They then say,that sex-role stereotypes about activity also characterize Belotti's recipes: They then say,the message although contradictory girls cause more trouble even though they are more passive is clear in that it reflects the sex-role stereotype that boys "do" while girls "are" and the belief that boys are more desirable than girls.

They also say that parents have gender stereotyped reasons for wanting a girl or a boy,obviously if they didn't it wouldn't matter if it's a girl or boy. When my first cousin was pregnant with her first of two girls people even strangers said such false ridiculous things to her,that they were sure she was going to have a boy because she was carrying low or how stomach looked.

I know that many scientists know that the brain is plastic and can be shaped and changed by different life experiences and different environments too and Eastern College gender and Christian psychology professor Dr. Mary Stewart Van Leewuen told this to me too when I spoke to her 15 years ago. Van Leeuwen also said that human beings don't have sex fixed in the brain and she told me that humans have a unique highly developed cerebral cortex that allows us to make choices in our behaviors and we can learn things that animals can't.

There was another case in Canada that I read about online some years ago about another case in which a normal genetic male baby's penis was destroyed when he was an infant and in this case he was raised as a girl from the much younger age of only 7 months old,not as late as 21 months as was David Reimer,and research shows that the core gender identity is learned by as early as 18 months old.

In this other case,it was reported in he was still living as a woman in his 20's but a bisexual woman. With David Reimer they raised him as a girl too late after he learned most of his gender identity as a boy from the moment he was born and put into blue clothes, treated totally differently, given gender stereotyped toys, perceived and treated totally differently than girls are in every way in the great book,He and She: How Children Develop Their Sex Role Identity it explains that a lot of research studies and tests by parent child psychologists found that they give 3 month old babies gender stereotyped toys long before they are able to develop these kinds of preferences or ask for these toys.

And those adults who thought the baby was a boy,always handed the baby a toy foot ball,but never a doll and were asked what made them think it was a girl or boy and they said they used characteristics of the baby to make the judgement. Those who thought the baby was a boy described characteristics such as strength,those who thought the baby was a girl described the baby as having softness and fragility,and as the Dr.

Jeanne Brooks-Gunn and Wendy Schempp Mathews explain,Again remember that the same infant was being characterized as strong or soft,the actual distinction by sex characteristics being only in the minds of the adults. They also explain that in the toy preference studies,girl toddlers often show an initial interest in the trucks,but eventually abandon them for a more familiar type of toy. Kate used to be a heterosexual married man who fathered a daughter and then had a sex change and became a lesbian woman who now doesn't indemnity as a man or a woman.

I heard Kate interview in on a local NPR show and she totally debunks gender myths,and rejects the "feminine" and "masculine" categories as the mostly socially constructed categories that they really are. She even said,what does it mean to feel or think like a woman or man she said what does that really mean. In the late s, Penny Burge, director of Virginia Tech's Women's Center, was working on her doctoral dissertation at Penn State University researching the relationship between child-rearing sex-role attitudes and social issue sex-role attitudes among parents.

As part of her research, Burge designed a question survey in which respondents were asked to mark how much they agreed or disagreed with statements such as: Hard-hitting questions, many of them. But Burge carried on. She received her degree in , and in her research findings were published in the Home Economics Research Journal. Among her findings were that respondents who named the mother as their child's primary caretaker held more traditional child-rearing sex-role attitudes than respondents who named both parents.

In addition, those respondents who held more traditional child-rearing sex-role attitudes also held more traditional social issue sex-role attitudes, and fathers were more conventional than mothers with respect to the issue of whether or not boys and girls should be raised differently. Over the years, Burge occasionally received requests from other researchers for permission to use her survey in their own research. Burge always granted permission, but had redirected her research focus to gender equity in education.

She had moved on in her career, serving on the faculty in Virginia Tech's College of Human Resources and Education from to when she became director of the Women's Center. But a recent request from a researcher at New Mexico State University sparked her interest. The researcher, Betsy Cahill, had used Burge's survey with some modifications and additions to conduct research on early childhood teachers' attitudes toward gender roles.

After the results of Cahill's research were completed and published in The Journal of Sex Roles in , some unexpected events occurred. The Educational Testing Service, a national resource that makes research instruments more widely available to other researchers, requested permission to use the Burge and Cahill survey tools in its upcoming Test Collection, a reference publication for future researchers. And the request from the Educational Testing Service gave an additional sanction to my survey.

It's amazing to me that the same type of social questions are still valid after 20 years. And no one can dispute the past two decades have brought enormous social changes in the world, which leads to the second unexpected occurrence. Cahill found that many of the findings from Burge's research were still very much the same. For example, teachers who espoused traditional gender role beliefs for adults also did for children. For those who were more accepting of cross-gender role behaviors and aspirations, they were more accepting of these behaviors from girls than boys.

Enter Sharon Snow, newly hired assistant director of the Women's Center at Virginia Tech, and the third coincidence regarding Burge's survey tool. As part of a survey research class Snow took while working on her graduate degree at Texas Woman's University, she cited Burge's study in her literature review. It's not something that just happens naturally.

So 20 year later, researchers find that parents still have a profound influence on their children's gender roles. Why do so few women occupy positions of power and prestige? Virginia Valian uses concepts and data from psychology, sociology, economics, and biology to explain the disparity in the professional advancement of men and women. According to Valian, men and women alike have implicit hypotheses about gender differences — gender schemas — that create small sex differences in characteristics, behaviors, perceptions, and evaluations of men and women.

Those small imbalances accumulate to advantage men and disadvantage women. The most important consequence of gender schemas for professional life is that men tend to be overrated and women underrated. Valian's goal is to make the invisible factors that retard women's progress visible, so that fair treatment of men and women will be possible. The book makes its case with experimental and observational data from laboratory and field studies of children and adults, and with statistical documentation on men and women in the professions.

The many anecdotal examples throughout provide a lively counterpoint. Social psychologist Valian thinks that the Western world has gotten gender all wrong. Just about everyone, Valian writes, assumes that men are independent, task-oriented and assertive, while women are tagged as expressive and nurturing. As such, women lag behind in many professions and continue to do the lion's share of housework and child-rearing. Girls remain less attentive in math and science, while even women who attend medical school tend to steer themselves into "gender appropriate" slots such as family practice or pediatrics.

Valian bases her findings on research conducted by social scientists in fields as disparate as psychology, education, sociology and economics, and the result is a work that is both scholarly and anecdotally rich. But it also posits concrete suggestions for changing the way we view the sexes, from stepped-up affirmative action programs, to timetables for rectifying gender-based valuations.

Accessible and lively, Why So Slow? MIT Press Publication date: In her very good important book,Why So Slow? The Advancement Of women, she says for parents who recognize and actively oppose the limitations of gender schemas matters are more complex she demonstrates clearly that many studies have shown that even parents who say they are egalitarian and who do encourage their children especially girls to consider a wide range of possible occupations and that encouragement influences the children's aspirations.

She then says but without realizing it on the other hand,they are affected by gender schemas,dressing their children in ways appropriate to their gender. She then says that their egalitarian beliefs prevent such parents from perceiving that they do encourage gender-specific patterns and from seeing how closely their children conform to the norm. She then says that gender schemas are powerful cultural forces and that adults cannot simply abandon them especially when they are unaware that they hold them and they too conform to them in such matters of dress.

On another page she says that everyone,it appears is likely to be affected deeply and nonconsciously by their culture's view of what it means to be male and female. Then she says that even people who consciously espouse egalitarian beliefs do not realize how profoundly they have internalized the culture's norms and applied them to their children. She then says that there is wide implicit consensus across income level,education,and sex about the core features of gender schemas and for these features parents are much more alike than they are different.

She then says regardless of demographic variables,most subscribe to basic gender norms ,dress gender stereotypically themselves,and unwittingly treat their children gender-stereotypically. Then she says parents who actively endorse gender schemas or are unaware of the impact of gender schemas on their perceptions and interpretations,perceive children as gendered from birth and treat them accordingly.

She also says that studies show that even parents who deliberately try to rear their children nonstereotypically are subject to the influence of gender schemas.


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She says a study of six year olds for example compared children whose mothers explicitly tried to bring them up in gender-neutral ways with children whose mothers had conventional attitudes about gender roles. And that when independent observers who were unaware of the parents beliefs rated the children's clothes as masculine or feminine the ratings showed that the boys and girls in both types of families were dressed according to gender norms.

She explains that the mothers who were committed to gender equality however saw their children's clothes as less gender-stereotypical even though they were not. She shows how parents perceive and treat their daughters and sons so differently from the moment they are born and she says in chapter 1 called Gender Schemas At work that gender schemas oversimplify and that masculine and feminine traits are not opposites of each other and they are not contradictory and that everyone has both to some degree and expresses different traits in different situations.

She then says that differences exist, but the sexes are more alike than they are different and she says it is easy to lose sight of that reality,even though most differences between the sexes are small. Janet Shibley Hyde in this major meta-analysis of hundreds of studies by all different psychologists from decades that was written in American psychologist,the journal of The American Psychological Association,found that the sexes are more alike than different in almost all personality traits,abilities,etc.

In these extensive studies by psychologist Dr. Janet Shibley Hyde and others that is still on the American Psychological Association's web site since and that was published in American psychologist the journal of The American Psychological Association,Think Again: Men and women Share Cognitive Skills. It's reported that Psychologists have gathered solid evidence that boys or girls or men and women differ in very few significant ways-- differences that would matter in school or at work--in how,and how well they think.

Anne Fausto-Sterling's Myths of Gender: Biological Theories About Women and Men. She is a biologist and geneticist at Brown Univetsity and she thoroughly debunks these claims about testosterone levels and aggressive behavior and a whole lot of other sexist,racist claims made by both women and men scientists.

And also the book,Brain Storm: And she says how remarably similar women and men's brains and minds actually are. Interview with long time feminist Letty Cottin Pogrebin about her teaching and erasing her two twin daughters and her son with non-sexist non-gender roles and gender stereotypes. Feminist Letty Cottin Pogrebin's son didn't reject playing with dolls and tea sets, just as her identical twin daughters didn't reject the non-gender stereotyped toys and behaviors she encouraged them to have. And her son didn't grow up gay or transgendered he's married and I think has children,but he didn't grow up to be a macho football player either,as Letty said he's a chef and loves to cook.

And then these artificial gender differences continue to reinforce gender inequalities,male dominance and men's violence against women,children and even each other. He too shows plenty of great important research studies done over decades by many different psychologists that finds small average sex differences,and the sexes are much more similar than different. He also thoroughly demonstrates that gender roles,gender myths and gender stereotypes which are mostly socially and culturally constructed,harm both sexes because they are very liming,cause conflicts and misunderstands between women and men,and only allow each of them to become half of a person which can cause mental and physical conditions and diseases.

Among certain parents, it is an article of faith not only that they should treat their sons and daughters alike, but also that they do. Lise Eliot, a neuroscientist at Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, doesn't think these parents are lying, exactly. But she would like to bring some studies to their attention.

In one, scientists dressed newborns in gender-neutral clothes and misled adults about their sex. The adults described the "boys" actually girls as angry or distressed more often than did adults who thought they were observing girls, and described the "girls" actually boys as happy and socially engaged more than adults who knew the babies were boys. Dozens of such disguised-gender experiments have shown that adults perceive baby boys and girls differently, seeing identical behavior through a gender-tinted lens.

In another study, mothers estimated how steep a slope their month-olds could crawl down. Moms of boys got it right to within one degree; moms of girls underestimated what their daughters could do by nine degrees, even though there are no differences in the motor skills of infant boys and girls. But that prejudice may cause parents to unconsciously limit their daughter's physical activity. How we perceive children—sociable or remote, physically bold or reticent—shapes how we treat them and therefore what experiences we give them.

Since life leaves footprints on the very structure and function of the brain, these various experiences produce sex differences in adult behavior and brains—the result not of innate and inborn nature but of nurture. Marching through the claims like Sherman through Georgia, she explains that assertions of innate sex differences in the brain are either "blatantly false," "cherry-picked from single studies," or "extrapolated from rodent research" without being confirmed in people.

For instance, the idea that the band of fibers connecting the right and left brain is larger in women,supposedly supporting their more "holistic" thinking, is based on a single study of only 14 brains. Fifty other studies, taken together, found no such sex difference—not in adults, not in newborns. Yet there are differences in adults' brains, and here Eliot is at her most original and persuasive: For instance, baby boys are more irritable than girls.

That makes parents likely to interact less with their "nonsocial" sons, which could cause the sexes' developmental pathways to diverge. By 4 months of age, boys and girls differ in how much eye contact they make, and differences in sociability, emotional expressivity, and verbal ability—all of which depend on interactions with parents—grow throughout childhood.

The message that sons are wired to be nonverbal and emotionally distant thus becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy. The sexes "start out a little bit different" in fussiness, says Eliot, and parents "react differently to them," producing the differences seen in adults. Those differences also arise from gender conformity.